After entering the digital age, various new technologies have made the transmission and storage of information fast and efficient, but they have also brought with it new problems. Due to technological updates, some of the electronic information generated in the past was often lost due to the elimination of technology. Therefore, it is an important task to digitally archive important information. This article is aimed at this issue. It focuses on the relevant research of the International Association for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI). It uses the various phases of the information cycle as clues. Through in-depth study of 18 key examples, it analyzes and summarizes digital archives. Existing problems and solutions.
I. Introduction to Digital Archives As the name implies, digital archiving is the electronic storage of information in digital form for future use. However, from the point of view of actual application, one of the goals is to prevent information from being lost due to technological updates. Therefore, the paper defines the period of digital archiving and studies the long-term archiving of digital information.
In recent decades, the development of electronic technology has been booming. Authors, publishers, and even librarians and museum members have eliminated paper and pens and are accustomed to using electronic means to generate information content. However, as users of technology, they often fail to recognize deep-seated problems because they are concerned about the speed of information generation and transmission, the degree of difficulty, and the immediate problems, and ignore the long-term preservation of information. In fact, this issue is critical because, in the electronic mode, the storage of information is not as stable as on paper or microfilm, and the information content can easily be damaged or altered. In addition, the digital storage media has a short cycle, and the various hardware and software technologies that are closely linked with this media are in a state of renewed status, and each digital storage mode has corresponding hardware and software technical support. This proprietary environment has emerged. Not available. It can be seen that from a long-term and practical point of view, it is necessary to find a way to store information for a long time and use it extensively. This is exactly the problem that digital archiving must solve.
The emergence of this new model of digitalization will inevitably bring about changes in the industrial structure and division of work. Taking the publishing industry as an example, in the traditional printing environment, the generation, transmission, and storage of information can often be done independently by publishers. But now it is different. When technology plays an increasingly important role in publishing, publishers may not be able to shoulder this responsibility independently. In particular, digital archiving requires not only expensive system configuration, but also the need to cultivate technology. Skilled operators, all of which even if the publishers are able to pay, I am afraid that will not operate smoothly, let alone from the principle of investment, this is not a wise choice. Therefore, under the new digital model, publishers will often seek new technology partners to generate, transmit and archive digital information. This kind of role conversion can not only reduce publisher investment, but also improve product quality.
II. Background and Methods of ICSTI Research ICSTI, (International Council for Science and Technical Information), is a Canadian scientific and technological information organization whose members include the preparation of national libraries, research institutes, publishers, and bibliographic databases. By. ICSTI began a survey on digital archiving in March 1999. Its purpose was to promote the development of digital archiving technologies and practices, and to make more people aware of the importance of digital archiving. For the same purpose, the members of the CENDI Working Group (CENDI, a working group for science and technology information management in the U.S. Federal Government) subsequently joined the study.
Under the leadership of ICSTI and CENDI, the research centered on a number of representative projects and investigated these projects through contacts with experts. Of the more than 30 projects that were contacted, 18 were delivered as representative projects from 6 countries, of which 9 were from the United States, 2 from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Sweden and Finland. One, the Other four are from international organizations. The 18 projects are of different natures, with government science and technology projects, national archives, and projects run by national libraries, publishers, and research institutions.
In the course of investigating these projects, the project staff raised various issues, including the current archive mode and some good trials. In the discussion, the researchers focused on the practical strategy first, followed by the technology itself.
For research purposes, researchers have positioned digital archiving in long-term archiving, and the aim is to focus on those information that is primarily generated and delivered electronically. The digitized version of this information is considered a basic archive. In addition, digital materials converted from other media are not included in this study unless the converted digital version becomes the basic version.
Third, the various phases of the information cycle The digital information archiving cycle is nothing but the generation of information, the selection of archiving information, etc. In each phase of the work, the characteristics of digital archiving, emphasis are different, the following will be elaborated separately.
(A) Information generation Information generation is the process of producing information products. The person in charge of all projects agrees that this process is the initial stage of long-term archiving, that is to say at this stage it is important to realize the importance of archiving, because even if the control is carefully, if you do not consider archiving digital information may also be lost . Moreover, the operation in the information generation phase directly affects the final digital archiving and preservation, and determines the ease and reliability of these tasks.
In addition, from the experience of research projects, creative personnel should also participate in digital archiving. It is very important for creative personnel to strengthen a few points of understanding. First, the creative staff must understand the importance of digital archiving for digital information, preservation, and use. Because creative personnel know more about the information content itself, which are the most important and what is second, these knowledge and estimates of the creative staff are a great indication for archive selection. Therefore, it is recommended that creative personnel provide such preservation guidance. Although this guidance cannot replace specific archival selection criteria, it will be a good complement.
The second point is to realize that if the format, the standard, and the description of metadata are fully taken into account in the information generation phase, the efficiency of the subsequent archiving work will increase a lot. Taking the ORNL (Oak Ridge National Library) project in the United States as an example, they provide guidance for the generation of digital files, and have specific restrictions on software and file formats. This makes long-term and short-term information management more convenient.
In addition, most project leaders believe that it is best to generate metadata during the information generation phase, or during the cataloging phase, but only for those digital projects to complete the metadata in the generation phase, the metadata in most projects must follow the data flow. Generated by measurement and tracking. The resulting metadata includes location, instrument type, and other related content.
For smaller datasets or images such as images, their metadata is mainly manually completed. Obviously, it is not enough to generate metadata only in the information generation phase. There are also some vendors that have added word processors and database products. The XML and RDF structures make it much simpler to have metadata as part of the project's original build.