Zero color and color management terminology

The following is an introduction to technical terms:

achromaticcolor: a color with zero saturation, that is, gray at all levels between black, white, and black and white.

blackbody: Also known as a complete radiator, it neither reflects nor transmits, but is an imaginary object that fully absorbs the radiation falling on it, and fully complies with Planck's radiation law under the action of radiation.

blackbodyradiator: Also known as Plankianradiator. The spectral energy distribution of blackbody radiation changes with temperature; as the temperature increases, the peak wavelength changes with the colors of red, orange, yellow, green, and blue.

brightness: The degree of distinguishing between light and dark colors.

Calibration: The process of ensuring that all color production devices (scanners, monitors, printing presses) meet the specifications or standard conditions of the manufacturer, user, or industry when they are built.

Characterization: The process of determining the system output in response to a known input. The characterization provides a method to obtain the full color gamut and reproduction characteristics of the device.

chromaticadaptation: A phenomenon in which the human eye changes its visual sensing ability with environmental chromaticity and brightness.

chromaticitydiagram: A graph that represents chromaticity coordinates on a plane.

chromaticity: A measure of the intensity of visual perception of the color of the naked eye.

Chroma: Referred to as C, to distinguish the degree of bright colors.

CIE (Commission International de I`Eclairage) International Lighting Committee: an international organization that studies and implements standards related to light sources and colors.

CIEL * a * b * International Lighting Commission three-dimensional color space: Mathematical color module based on human visual spectrum sensitivity to light, its three-dimensional space L * = lightness, a * = space red-green axis, b * = Blue-yellow axis of space.

CMM color matching module: a color conversion calculation method that accepts color data and transforms it into another color space reference data map.

CMS color management system: short for color management system. Incorporating color expertise and science into software attempts to simplify color reproduction and automate color adjustments, allowing users to complete color reproduction easily, reliably, and quickly.

color (order) system: color, data, coordinate, three-dimensional space or other ways to represent color space or position, such as Munsellsystem, PANTONEsystem, Lab, Lxy.

colorappearancemodel color appearance module: Mathematical model to describe the chromatic change of human vision.

colorconstancy: No matter how the condition of the light source changes, the visual perception of the color of the object always wants to maintain a certain constant phenomenon.

colordifference color difference: color difference value â–³ Eab * in CIEL * A * B * color space, color difference value â–³ Euv * in CIELUV color space.

colorgamut color gamut: the range of chromaticity space that a color device can display.

colormatching: adjust the intensity of chromaticity between different devices and objects, so that the human eye is consistent in perception.

colormixingsystem: A system that mixes colors into tens of millions of colors, usually additive and subtractive.

Colorperception: The visual perception of colors by the naked eye can generally be divided into two categories. The first category is colorless, which includes white, gray, and black; the second category is color, which includes solid colors and other general colors.


colorqualityassessment color quality assessment: a method for measuring the quality of a color image based on the visual characteristics of the human eye.

colorrenderingindex color rendering: the degree to which the light source presents the color of the object, and also the degree of color fidelity.

colorspace: It is as important as the color range of the three-dimensional space. It is a device that mathematically defines the chroma and chroma to be printed or displayed.

colorspectrummeter: A color measurement system that measures the spectral distribution value and chromaticity of objects in the visible light range.

colortemperature: indicates the spectral characteristics of the light source. When the spectral distribution of a light source is the same as the black body radiation, the absolute temperature corresponding to the black body radiation at this time is called the color temperature of the light source.

Colorimeter: Used as a three-color measuring device that reflects or transmits light from the surface of an object. Similar to the human eye, it converts reflected or transmitted light into a mathematical mode. Colorimeters are used to calibrate the characterization of displays and printers.

colorimetricvalues: Three numerical values ​​representing tristimulus values ​​of color stimulation characteristics.

Complementary colors: In the additive color method, when the two colors are mixed in equal amounts to produce white light, or in the subtractive color method, the two colors are mixed in equal amounts to produce black. These two colors can be called complementary colors.

Cone cone cells: Located in the human eyeball, the cone cells can be divided into red cone cells, green cone cells, and blue cone cells; the theory of the three primary colors of color and its evolution. It only plays a role in relatively bright situations (more than a few nits), suitable for low-light vision. It has the characteristics of low sensitivity, high resolution and color resolution.

Conversion: To convert a color image from the color space of one device to another, also known as color conversion.

correlatedcolortemperature: If the spectral distribution of a light source is different from the blackbody radiation, but its color characteristics are close to the blackbody radiation color temperature at a certain temperature, the color temperature is the relative color temperature.

Delta-E △ E: The distance between the CIEL * a * b * color spaces of the two colors used to express the total color difference and establish a quantitative color tolerance, usually in a visually uniform (perceptually uniform) chromaticity space To calculate △ E. densitometer: A device that measures the amount of black and white or four-color light reflected or transmitted on the surface of an object. The reflection densitometer is used to read the density of the four-color ink on the printing press. It can also calculate other values ​​such as dot gain, overprinting and chroma errors. The transmission densitometer is used to read the density of color separation films, black and white or color film.

Diffuser: A diffuser can reflect incident light almost uniformly to all angles.

dotgain dot gain: The percentage (or tone value) of the actual increase in the full tone range or the specific halftone dot percentage. For example, the increase of 20% dots will cause 70% dots to appear in 50% of the intermediate points, and the color tone of the copy will be significantly different from the original.

errordiffusion: A technique commonly used for image processing, especially color image processing. It is a corresponding processing method for diffusing high frequency signals around points.

favoritecolor: The phenomenon of human preference for the color expression of objects, such as blue sky bluer, green grass greener, higher tone contrast, etc.

Fluorescence: by the excitation of a light source with a shorter wavelength, a special light with a longer wavelength is emitted.

gammacurve tone curve: the corresponding function curve between the input value and the output value of a device such as a screen.

GCR (GrayComponentReplacement) gray replacement: This technology can enhance the detailed parts of the black version and make the shadow contrast greater. The method of GCR forming the black version is a technology in which the gray part generated by the CYM tricolor is replaced with black ink.

HSB: Represents the color mode formed by hue, saturation and brightness.

HSL: Represents the color model formed by hue, saturation and lightness.

Hue hue: Abbreviation H is the characteristic that the main wavelengths of colors are distinguished from each other.


ICC (InternationalColorConsorltium): An international committee that develops color data standards, see "Data Map".

illuminance: The degree to which the light source illuminates the object.

just-perceptibledifference color difference resolution element: the color difference value that human vision can no longer distinguish.

Kellfactorkell parameter: Calculate the quality parameter of the vertical scanning line that displays the playback screen. Generally speaking, the value of the secondary parameter is 0.7.

Linearization: The special calibration of the linear relationship between the input and output after the output device is adjusted. For example: the halftone dot value output by the image output machine after linearization is within a certain tolerance range of its input.

luminanceadaptation: When the intensity of the illumination light changes, the visual function of the human eye will automatically adapt to the adjustment, and the information can still be obtained normally.

luminance: The intensity of light emitted by a luminous body.

luminousbody: An object that can emit light by itself, such as the sun, fluorescent lamp, flame, electric lamp, etc.

Luminous intensity: the intensity of the light source (I), I = dΦ / dw.

metamerism metamerism: items with the same tristimulus value and different spectral distribution.

Munsellcolorsystem Munsell color system.

neutralcolor: a neutral gray with no color.

Non-luminousbody: It can not emit light by itself, only when it receives light from a luminous body can it produce a shiny object.

opacity: An object with zero light transmission.

Photopicvision: In the brighter conditions, only the cones work. This visual state is called bright vision.

preferencecolor: It is similar to favoritecolor; however, it emphasizes the particular preferences of certain ethnic groups, groups and individuals.

profileorICCProfile data graph or International Color Federation data graph: developed by the International Color Federation and published in 1995. The data graph is a standard file format that transmits the color output of a system or device in response to a known input. Describe a device such as an application and operating system that supports this format.

Quartzhalogenlamp Quartz halogen lamp: the most commonly used light source for color measurement, such as color meter and spectrometer, is a continuous spectrum light source and a high color rendering light source.

Rod body cells: located in the human eyeball, only play a role in relatively dark conditions (brightness is less than 0.01nits), suitable for low-light vision, it has high sensitivity, low resolution, no color resolution characteristics, its sensitivity The range is 400 ~ 600nm.

Saturation: only the purity of color, the more saturated the spectrum is when it penetrates into other light components.

Scotopicvision dark vision: only the stalk-like body works under dark conditions. This visual state is called dark vision.

sensitivity: The degree of brightness that is felt when seeing light.

Spectraldistribution: The fraction of the total energy emitted by the light source for each spectral interval.

spectrophotometer: A device that measures the amount of reflected or transmitted light at regular intervals throughout the visible spectrum. Spectrophotometric data can be used to calculate density and chromaticity variables.

Spectrum spectrum: If the emitted light is described as three main light waves of red, green and blue, then when these three main light waves of different proportions are combined, a complete spectrum containing all colors will be generated.

spetraltristimulusvalues ​​Spectral tristimulus values: tristimulus values, tristimulus values ​​(X, Y, Z) are the three basic values ​​of the CIE color system, which are composed of three basic color elements such as the light source, the subject and the receiver.

tristimulusvalue: It can simulate the three color stimulus values ​​of human eyes, and can match the colors seen by standard observers under the CIE standard lighting body.

UCR (UnderColorRemoval) background color removal: This technology is used in printing, can effectively remove the color overlap of the shadow part, and adjust the middle tone to make the gray light and dark balance.

Value brightness: Abbreviation V is the name to distinguish the degree of brightness.

Visualangle: The angle formed by the pupils at both ends of the visual target.

Visualfield: the area that can be seen by both eyes (at static).

Visualspectrum Visible spectrum: visible light with a wavelength of 380nm ~ 780nm, within this range will only cause the reaction of the naked eye and a sense of color.

whitepoint: Used as a reference point for color balance measurement during color separation, photography, or photography.

Xenon-arclamps: A kind of light source commonly used in color meters and spectrometers. Because it has an almost continuous emission spectrum in the ultraviolet and visible light ranges, it is used to simulate sunlight.

Yuv: A uniform colorimetric system, commonly used in the color display industry.

zonetheory zone theory: a course of color vision transfer processing that connects the human eye's three-color theory and the opposite color theory, first proposed by Judd in 1949.

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